Patents with Abstracts
Patents with Abstracts
Crosslinked polymers containing biomass derived materials
The concept of using biomass-derived materials to produce other useful products has been explored since man first used plant materials and animal fur to make clothing and tools. Biomass derived materials have also been used for centuries as adhesives, solvents, lighting materials, fuels, inks/paints/coatings, colorants, perfumes and medicines. Recently, people have begun to explore the possibility of using "refined biomass" as starting materials for chemical conversions leading to novel high value-in-use products. Over the past two decades, the cost of renewable biomass materials has decreased to a point where many are competitive with those derived from petroleum. In addition, many materials that cannot be produced simply from petroleum feedstocks are potentially available from biomass or refined biomass. Many of these unique, highly functionalized, molecules would be expected to yield products unlike any produced by current chemical processes. "Refined biomass" is purified chemical compounds derived from the first or second round of plant biomass processing. Examples of such materials include cellulose, sucrose, glucose, fructose, sorbitol, erythritol, and various vegetable oils.
A particularly useful class of refined biomass is that of aldaric acids. Aldaric acids, also known as saccharic acids, are diacids derived from naturally occurring sugars. When aldoses are exposed to strong oxidizing agents, such as nitric acid, both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxyl groups. An attractive feature of these aldaric acids includes the use of very inexpensive sugar based feedstocks, which provide low raw material costs and ultimately could provide low polymer costs if the proper oxidation processes are found. Also, the high functional density of these aldaric acids provide unique, high value opportunities, which are completely unattainable at a reasonable cost from petroleum based feedstocks.
Andrews, Chenaulta and Figuly of E I du Pont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington, Delaware, have developed novel, crosslinked polymers using biomass derived materials, such as aldaric acids and derivatives. The polymers can be used as hydrogels and in antimicrobial compositions. (RDC 8/28/2013)
Preparation of crosslinked polymers containing biomass derived materials
Andrews, Figuly and Chenault; of DuPont developed crosslinking agents from an aldaric acid, aldarolactone, aldarodilactone, aldarolactone ester, aldaric acid monoester, aldaric acid diester, or aldaramide, or salts thereof, for polyallylamine, polyallylamine hydrochloride, branched polyethyleneimine, branched polyethyleneimine hydrochloride, poly(acryloyl chloride), poly(methacryloyl chloride), poly[N-(.omega.-aminoalkyl)acrylamide], polyglycosamine, carboxymethylchitosan, chitosan and chitosan hydrochloride.
Process and apparatus for the production of useful products from carbonaceous feedstock
Pearson developed a carbon feedstock to alcohol conversion process in which carbon dioxide is removed from the syngas stream issuing from a feedstock reformer, to yield a carbon dioxide depleted syngas stream including hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane. This carbon dioxide depleted syngas stream is then passed through a Fischer-Tropsch reactor ultimately yielding a mixed alcohol product which is preferably largely ethanol. The removed carbon dioxide stream is passed through a methane reformer along with methane, which is produced in or has passed through a Fischer-Tropsch reactor, to yield primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The carbon monoxide and hydrogen stream from the methane reformer are passed through the alcohol reactor. Also disclosed are a unique catalyst, a method for controlling the content of the syngas formed in the feedstock reformer, and a feedstock handling system. (RDC 4/4/2013)
Solvo-thermal fractionation of biomass
Kilambi and Kadam of Renmatix, Inc., Georgia, developed a process for producing xylose and cellulose from a biomass by: (a) mixing a biomass with a reactive fluid comprising water and a supercritical C1-C5 alcohol to form a mixture at a first temperature and a first pressure; (b) maintaining the mixture at the first temperature and first pressure for a first time period, wherein a reaction occurs; and (c) quenching the reaction to form at least one reaction product mixture; wherein xylose and cellulose are produced by the process. Lignin may also be produced by this process. (RDC 10/11/2012)
Catalytic pyrolysis of solid biomass and related biofuels, aromatic, and olefin compounds
Huber et al of the University of Massachusetts, Massachusetts, produced fluid hydrocarbons via catalytic pyrolysis such as benzene, toluene, naphthalene and xylene. The biomass and catalyst are heated between 500. and 1000 C. The catalysts include zeolites with high silica to alumina. The biomass /catalyst ratio range from 5:1 to 20:1). (RDC 10/4/2012)
Solidified biomass and production method thereof
Ida and Nakanishi of Kinki University and Naniwa Roki Co., Ltd., Japan, developed a solidified biomass consisting of semi-carbonized or pre-semi-carbonized solid matter pressure-formed from raw biomass material while being heated and has a maximum compressive strength of 60-200 MPa and calorific value of 18-23 MJ/kg. A method for producing the solidified biomass: includes crushing raw biomass material; loading a barrel with the crushed raw biomass material; inserting a pressure applying piston into a hollow of the barrel; pressure-forming the crushed raw biomass materials by applying pressure with the pressure applying piston while heating the material; obtaining semi-carbonized or pre-semi-carbonized solid matter by retaining constant time of the heating and the pressurizing; cooling the semi-carbonized or pre-semi-carbonized solid matter while maintaining pressure to obtain a cooled solid; and taking out and drying the cooled solid, wherein the pressure applying piston and the hollow of the barrel have very small clearance between their outer and inner peripheries. (RDC 7/5/2012)
Methods for enhanced processing of biomass using flash desiccation and/or mechanical hydrodynamic cavitation
Kreisler and Winsness of GS Cleantech Corporation, New York, conditioned biomass by flash dessicating the biomass to reduce a particle size of the biomass; mixing with a liquid carrier; and exposing the biomass and the liquid carrier to a mechanical hydrodynamic cavitation process. The methods can be employed during ethanol production from grain based feedstock. (RDC 6/15/2012)
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Roger D. Corneliussen
Maro Polymer Links
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Copyright 2012 by Roger D. Corneliussen.
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** Date of latest addition; date of first entry is 6/15/2012.