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Nanoparticles

Patent Abstracts

From 05/29/2014 through  9/23/2011

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Patents with Abstracts

16. Nanoparticle Chains

U.S. Patent 8,563,081 (October 22, 2013), “Nanoparticle Chains by Direct Bonding of Functional Groups and Preparation thereof,” Joseph M. Jacobson, David W. Mosley, and Kie-Moon Sung (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA).

Inorganic nanoparticles, nanoclusters, and colloids can be useful in nanosensors, molecular electronics and nano optical devices.   Their problem is difficulty in uniform mxing due to agglomeration and small size.  Jacobson, Mosley and Sung formed nanoparticle chains using reactive groups.  Reactive functional groups are added to the nanoparticles.  For example, a disubstituted nanoparticle with two terminal carboxylate groups pointing in opposite directions can form covalent bonds with a symmetrical diamine such as ethylenediamine.  Thus nanoparticles can be linked into one-dimensional linear chains by successive chemical reactions.  Each reaction adds one or more nanoparticles by building onto exposed, unprotected linkers.  Protecting groups may be used to control and organize growth. Another example uses exposed amino acids as the linking groups.  Sequential peptide synthesis can, then, produce elaborate one-dimensional nanoparticle chains.

15. 8,466,245 
 Polymerisable mass with cross-linking nanoparticles 

Pure crosslinked polyacrylates have only a comparatively low strength. The mechanical properties of polymers can be improved by means of fillers. Owing to the comparative ease with which acrylate ester groups can be hydrolysed, only a few fillers, for example carbon black, can be used in polyacrylates. However, this impairs the frequently desired transparency of polyacrylates.

Langerbeins, Kuhner and  Siol of Nanoresins AG, Germany, developed a polymerizable composition containing: a. acrylates and/or methacrylates which have a glass transition temperature Tg of 0 C. or less, b. from 0.5 to 70 wt% SiO2 particles which have an average particle size of from 1 to 150 nm and have polymerizable groups on the surface and are present in dispersed form in the acrylates and/or methacrylates, with at least 50% of the SiO2 particles being individual unaggregated or unagglomerated primary particles, where the composition contains not more than 2% by weight of crosslinker molecules. The resulting elastomers have good mechanical properties such as a high elongation to break. At the same time, they are completely transparent since the nanofillers used according to the invention have no adverse effect on the transparency.

14. 8,357,424 
Preparation of nanoparticle chains comprising reacting of functional groups 

Jacobson Mosley and Sung of the Massachusetts Institue of Technology, Massachusetts, fabricated nanoparticles into one-dimensional linear chains by successive chemical reactions, each reaction adding one or more nanoparticles by building onto exposed, unprotected linker functionalities.  Optionally, protecting groups may be used to control and organize growth. Nanoparticle spheres are functionalized in a controlled manner in order to enable covalent linkages. Functionalization of nanoparticles is accomplished by either ligand exchange or chemical modification of the terminal functional groups of the capping ligand. Nanoparticle chains are obtained by a variety of connectivity modes such as direct coupling, use of linker molecules, and use of linear polymeric templates. In particular, a versatile building block system is obtained through controlled monofunctionalization of nanoparticles

13. 8,288,473 
Disk-like nanoparticles
 
Wang et al of Bridgestone, Japan, developed a disk-like nanoparticle includes a core layer that comprises a cross-linked multi-vinyl substituted aromatic hydrocarbon and a shell layer that consists of tri-block copolymer chains, each having a first, a second, and a third block.  The first and third blocks of the tri-block copolymer chains consist of vinyl aromatic monomer units and are crosslinked with the core.  The second block consist of conjugated diene monomer units and comprises a top and bottom axial surface of the disk-like nanoparticle. In the case of a nanoparticle having A-B-C tri-block copolymer chains, the third block comprises a top and bottom axial surface of the disk-like nanoparticle. (RDC 11/1/2012)

12. 8,241,651 
Multiphasic biofunctional nano-components and methods for use thereof
 
Lahann of the University of Michigan, Michigan, developed multiphasic nanoparticles having at least two phases and at least one active ingredient are provided. These nanoparticles can be used in various methods for medical diagnostics or with pharmaceutical, personal care, oral care, and/or nutritional compositions, for example, in oral care, hair, or skin products. The nanoparticles can be designed to have targeted delivery within an organism, while providing controlled release systems or combining incompatible active ingredients. Further, they can be used as biomedical coatings (such as anti-microbial coatings), or anti-corrosive coatings, bioimaging probes with combined diagnostic and therapeutic use, and fragrance release systems, among others. The nanoparticles can be formed by electrified jetting of polymers. (RDC 8/17/2012)

11. 8,217,108 
Polymeric composite including nanoparticle filler
 
Cooper et al of NaturalNano, Inc., New York, developed a halloysite nanoparticle filler which has the generally cylindrical or tubular (e.g. rolled scroll-like shape), in which the mean outer diameter of the filler particle is typically less than about 500 nm.  The filler is effectively employed in a polymer composite in which the advantages of the tubular nanoparticle filler are provided (e.g., reinforcement, flame retardant, chemical agent elution, etc.) with improved or equivalent mechanical performance of the composite (e.g., strength and ductility).

"halloysite" is a naturally occurring clay of the chemical formula Al2Si2O5(OH)4.nH2O; material that is believed to be the result of hydrothermal alteration or surface weathering of aluminosilicate minerals, such as feldspars. Halloysite in its hydrated form may also be referred to as endellite. Halloysite further includes tubular nanoparticles therein (halloysite nanotubes (HNT))”.” (RDC 7/27/2012)

10. 8,187,672 
Residual solvent extraction method and microparticles produced thereby
 
Rickey, Ramstack and Kumar of Alkermes Pharma Ireland Limited, Ireland, prepared microparticles with reduced residual solvent levels. Microparticles are contacted with a non-aqueous washing system to reduce the level of residual solvent in the microparticles. Preferred non-aqueous washing systems include 100% ethanol and a blend of ethanol and heptane. A solvent blend of a hardening solvent and a washing solvent can be used to harden and wash microparticles in a single step, thereby eliminating the need for a post-hardening wash step. (RDC 6/6/2012)

9. 8,119,097 
Method for producing nanoparticulate solid materials
 
Kleine and Proelss of BASF, Germany, produced nanoparticulate solids by means of a Peclet number-stabilized gas-phase reaction, which comprises a) providing a reaction gas, b) passing the reaction gas through at least one reaction zone comprising a porous medium and subjecting it to a reaction which is stabilized by the medium and occurs at least partly in the interior of the porous medium, with nanoparticulate primary particles being formed, c) subjecting the reaction product obtained in step b) to rapid cooling after the reaction and d) isolating the nanoparticulate solids formed.   [Kleine and Proelss, US Patent 8,119,097 (2/21/2012)]

Note: The Peclet number Pe is defined as the ratio of heat production by the reaction to heat removal by means of the thermal conductivity of the gas: Pe=(sI d)/a (s. I) where I = laminar flame velocity, d=equivalent pore size, a=thermal conductivity of the gas mixture.

8. 8,080,183
Nanoparticle assemblies with molecular springs
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Kotov, Lee; Joebeom and Govorov of Ohio University, Ohio, develoed a
 nanoscale sensing device from different types of nanoparticles (NPs) and nanowires (NWs) connected by molecular springs. The distance between the nanoscale colloids reversibly changes depending on conditions or analyte concentration and can be evaluated by fluorescence measurements.  (RDC 1/10/2011)

7. 8,075,919
Methods for fabrication, uses and compositions of small spherical particles prepared by controlled phase separation

Brown et al of Baxter International, Illinois and Switzerland, prepared
small spherical particles of an active agent by providing a solution in a single liquid phase. The single liquid phase comprises an active agent, a phase separation enhancing agent, and a first solvent. A phase change is induced at a controlled rate in the solution to cause a liquid-solid phase separation of the active agent and to form a solid phase and a liquid phase. The solid phase comprises solid small spherical particles of the active agent. The liquid phase comprises the phase separation enhancing agent and the solvent. The small spherical particles are substantially spherical and having a size from about 0.01 .mu.m to about 200 .mu.m.  (RDC 12/29/2011)

6. 8,063,142
Method of making nano-particles of selected size distribution

Wang and Foltz of Bridgestone, Japan, formed nanoparticles by polymerizing conjugated diene monomer in a hydrocarbon solvent to form a first reaction mixture, and charging excess alkenylbenzense monomer and anionic catalyst to form mono-block and diblock polymers.  Micelles of said mono-block and diblock polymers are formed, and at least one crosslinking agent is added to cross-link the micelles and form nanoparticles.  The nanoparticles preferably have a poly(alkenylbenzene) core and an outer layer including monomer units selected from the group consisting of conjugated dienes, alkenylbenzenes, alkylenes, and mixtures thereof, and a size distribution of between about 1 and 1000 nm.  (RDC 11/30/2011)

5. 8,062,703
Preparation of nanoparticle materials

O’Brien and Pickett of Nanoco Technologies, Greast Britain, produced nanoparticles by converting precursors..  The precursor composition comprises a first precursor species containing a first ion to be incorporated into the growing nanoparticles and a separate second precursor species containing a second ion to be incorporated into the growing nanoparticles. (RDC 11/30/2011)

4. 8,058,370
Process for the production of polymer microparticles

Hibino,  Matsuzaki and Gotou of Toagosei, Japan, produced high-quality polymer microparticles having uniform particle size by inverse suspension polymerization at high productivity while keeping excellent dispersion stability without causing aggregation among particles.  This includes  a dispersing tank a water-in-oil (W/O) type emulsion in which an organic solvent is a continuous phase and an aqueous solution of a vinyl-based monomer is a dispersing phase, and conducting the inverse suspension polymerization while feeding the water-in-oil (W/O) type emulsion to a continuous stirred tank reactor. (RDC 11/18/2011)

3. 8,057,899
Nano-particle preparation and applications

Wang et al of Bridgestone, Japan developed nanoparticles containing a poly(alkenylbenzene) core and a poly (conjugated diene) or a poly(alkylene) surface layer.  The process includes crossllinking block copolymer micelles. The nano-particles have a mean average diameter less than about 100 nm. The nano-particles can be modified via, for example, hydrogenation or functionalization. The nano-particles can advantageously be incorporated into rubbers, elastomers, and thermoplastics. (RDC 11/18/2011)

2. 8,052,849
Multi-phasic nanoparticles

Lahann, Martin and Roh of the University of Michigan, Michigan, formed multi-phasic nano-objects by jetting of two or more different liquids in side-by-side capillaries thereby generating a composite liquid stream.  The composite then exposed to an electric field which causes the composite liquid stream to at least partially solidify into a nano-object. The method forms a nano-object having a number of morphologies such as rods, spheres, and fibers. (RDC 11/14/2011)

1. 8.021,582
Method for producing microparticles in a continuous phase liquid

Lee and Chen of National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan, enable a continuous phase liquid and a dispersed phase liquid to flow together through a co-flow channel. Preferably, the dispersed phase liquid is arranged to flow within the flowing body of the continuous phase liquid in the co-flow channel so that the dispersed phase liquid is sheathed by the continuous phase liquid.  The continuous phase and dispersed phase liquids are comminuted into microparticles in the co-flow channel by intermittently blocking the co-flow channel.  (RDC 9/23/2011)

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Roger D. Corneliussen
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Copyright 2011 by Roger D. Corneliussen.
No part of this transmission is to be duplicated in any manner or forwarded by electronic mail without the express written permission of Roger D. Corneliussen
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** Date of latest addition; date of first entry is 9/23/2011.