Maro Publications



from 7/5/2012

Maro Topics


Patents with Abstracts





“A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence, phosphorescence, and other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light.

Many materials selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light. Materials that humans have chosen and developed for use as pigments usually have special properties that make them ideal for coloring other materials. A pigment must have a high tinting strength relative to the materials it colors. It must be stable in solid form at ambient temperatures.

For industrial applications, as well as in the arts, permanence and stability are desirable properties. Pigments that are not permanent are called fugitive. Fugitive pigments fade over time, or with exposure to light, while some eventually blacken.

Pigments are used for coloring paint, ink, plastic, fabric, cosmetics, food and other materials. Most pigments used in manufacturing and the visual arts are dry colorants, usually ground into a fine powder. This powder is added to a vehicle (or binder), a relatively neutral or colorless material that suspends the pigment and gives the paint its adhesion.

The worldwide market for inorganic, organic and special pigments had a total volume of around 7.4 million tons in 2006. Asia has the highest rate on a quantity basis followed by Europe and North America. In 2006, a turnover of 17.6 billion US$ (13 billion euro) was reached mostly in Europe, followed by North America and Asia.[1] The global demand on pigments was roughly US$ 20.5 billion in 2009, around 1.5-2% up from the previous year. It is predicted to increase in a stable growth rate in the coming years. The worldwide sales are said to increase up to US$ 24.5 billion in 2015, and reach US$ 27.5 billion in 2018.[2]

A distinction is usually made between a pigment, which is insoluble in the vehicle (resulting in a suspension), and a dye, which either is itself a liquid or is soluble in its vehicle (resulting in a solution). The term biological pigment is used for all colored substances independent of their solubility. A colorant can be both a pigment and a dye depending on the vehicle it is used in. In some cases, a pigment can be manufactured from a dye by precipitating a soluble dye with a metallic salt. The resulting pigment is called a lake pigment.”

(Wikipedia, Pigments, 7/5/2012)


Smart Pigments

“Typical fields of use of smart nanoinks are a printed surface on packagings for fresh food (meat, sausage, poultry, fish, cheese, vegetables), on milk products (microbial status, odor, taste), for detecting the status of added preservatives, the status of light or UV protection, the water content and status of gas permeability (which is required by the product)--in the case of dry food, in particular chips, snacks, herbs, marinades, coffee, prebaked food--the product should be well protected from atmospheric humidity in order to remain crisp, tender and flavorful.

Moreover, the microbial status as well as oxidation products of chemicals in the area of hygiene products, e.g. cosmetics (determined by high level of cleanliness and safety) and the microbial status for surgical overalls, masks, "coverware" with a high sterilization level in the medical area are expedient fields of use.

The particular features of smart nanoinks can be summarized as follows. The choice of resonant nanoparticles as signal formers for smart pigments is based on their up to 1000 times higher extinction coefficients compared with conjugated chromophores. Nanoparticle-based analysis makes the binding, the dissociation and the degradation of (bio)molecules directly visible to the eye--a similar direct approach without a resonance effect and without nanoparticles requires additional amplification systems, such as, for example, enzymes (see ELISA), radioisotopes (RIA) or fluorescence immunoassays.”

[Schalkhammer, US Patent 8,257,980 (9/4/2012)]


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(RDC 6/5/2012)


Roger D. Corneliussen

Maro Polymer Links
Tel: 610 363 9920
Fax: 610 363 9921


Copyright 2012 by Roger D. Corneliussen.
No part of this transmission is to be duplicated in any manner or forwarded by electronic mail without the express written permission of Roger D. Corneliussen

* Date of latest addition; date of first entry is 7/5/2012.